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Measurements of Enriched Uranium in Palestine and Lebanon

A paper by C. Busby titled “Evidence for the use by Israel of a neutron uranium warhead in Palestine and Lebanon” published on 8 December 2023 presents some measurements taken between 2003 and 2021 with some discussion.

The paper is 13 pages long and is a quick and easy read. More specifically, the measurements were taken from Fallujah in 2003 and 2010, Lebanon in 2006, and Gaza in 2008 and 2021. All indicate the presence of enriched uranium which does not occur in nature.

(U-238, U-235 and U-234 are naturally occurring but the latter two are only present in small amounts. U-235 is fissile and the uranium is enriched to increase the proportion of U-235 for use in nuclear power plants or nuclear weapons.)

There is, of course, some speculation as to the source and degree. But, in short,

…if U-235 is found in the three locations in the Middle East shown in Table 1, there are only two possibilities: 1. The Israelis dropped U-235, enriched Uranium, which they had produced in Israel or purchased in bombs or other Uranium weapons. Why would they do this? 2. The Israelis employed a weapon which contained U-238 but which produced U-235 as part of a nuclear explosion. Such a weapon must produce neutrons, and would be designated a neutron bomb. The first of these possibilities can be discarded: to drop enriched Uranium on your enemy is absurd. It is expensive. It is like killing your enemy by dropping diamonds. Enriched Uranium reportedly was valued at £250,000 a kilogram in the 1990s. This leaves result (2), which is that the source of the U-235 is a neutron-producing bomb.

Table 1: Summary of Uranium Enrichment (atom Ratio) in all samples from Iraq and Palestine 2003–2021.
Table 1: Summary of Uranium Enrichment (atom Ratio) in all samples from Iraq and Palestine 2003–2021.

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